The remaining responses were classified after some discussion among the judges. Markiewicz has noted that the effect of humor on source perceptions tends to be inconsistent: The third scale Recall was a composite score which was calculated by summing the--number of correct answers to ten questions about information contained in the ad.
This increased information most likely accounts for the decrease in transmission of as quescuriositystatements a largernumber recipient tions may have been answered.
Neither attitudes nor purchase intentions showed a significant decline between the three- and five-exposure conditions. An Experimental of MarketingResearch: It is worth noting that the results of this study indicate that even a very humorous commercial is proven to wearout after a high number of exposures.
In particular, Berlyne's two-factor theory and the twofactor cognitive response model by Cacioppo and Pettyhave been thought to hold promise for explaining past empirical results in marketing. Also, exposure had a significanteffect only on individualsinitially unfamiliarwith the advertisedbrand 56?
Several significant main effects were found for these measures, primarily for message type.
Repetition Effects As noted earlier, the occurrence of wearout due to repeated exposures to a commercial has been demonstrated in a number of studies. Limitations novel teleThoughthe use of professionally prepared, vision commercials our studyrepresents improvein an ment in mundanerealityover previousstudies, several limitations must be mentioned.
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of repetition on the communication effectiveness of humorous and serious commercials. It took for a long time to combine the previous research, and to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework. The serious message, on the other hand, was least effective at the moderate exposure level then tended to show an increase in effectiveness at the high exposure level.
Humor may also enhance message effectiveness by increasing source credibility and ultimately the persuasiveness of the source's appeal. Specifically, the predicted correlationbetween any two nonadjacent variables is equal to the product of all the pairwise correlations between adjacent intervening variables.
As might be expected, ad-related elaborations are the major determinants of Aad. The increasing use of humor in advertising implies a belief that this ad form enhances the effectiveness of a persuasive message. These resultssupport the argumentthat cognitive cues generatedby the message recipient, ratherthan message arguments, are the primary mediatorsof message acceptance.
Early research on the effects of repetition was motivated by the need to estimate the into of parameters a repetitionfunction to be incorporated advertising media models Aaker ; Little and Lodish ; Ray and Sawyer a, b; Ray, Sawyer, and Strong The minimum possible score was zero while the maximum score was ten on this true-false recall test.
In the interest of brevity, only a summary will be presentedhere. At excessive levels of opportunity, however, the persuasiveness of the advertisement declines.
The moredemanding,albeitexploratory, tests proposed involvethe assessmentof two- and three-wayrepetition interaction effects. Last, the regression analyses show that repetition-related elaborations do not contribute to an explanation of the variation in A, and PI beyond that accounted for by the product- and ad-related thoughts.
For the serious message, it appears that the tedium or reactance which might lead to negative evaluations did not occur at the high exposure level. More recently, Cacioppo and Pettypostulated that the attitudinal effects of message repetition are mediated by the elaborations i.
Of interest here are the ratings for the humorous and serious messages in the five-exposure varied and nonvaried conditions. The effects of process-related variableson the extentof learning. Cognitive processing at higher levels of exposure may consist ideationmore thanof relevantprocessing of topic-irrelevant and evaluation of the message arguments.
It is unlikely that college students would have much of a need for an overnight delivery service, thus attitude toward using and intention to use would be rather abstract constructs which might not be differently affected by variations in message execution.
Effects of Repetition on the MediatingRole of Cognitive Response Also of concern in this study are the effects of message repetitionon the mediating relationshipbetween cognitive responses and message acceptance.
She suggests that this associative process might be well-suited for simple messages in which one concept or argument is presented several times in connection with humor. Launchcommercialsfor the KodakDisc camerawere made availablepriorto their nationalairingand served as test stimulifor the study.
The strength of the relationshipbetween cognitive response and message acceptance measures increases with moderatelevels of exposure, then decreases at high levels of exposure. However, attitudes toward using the service and intention to use the service were not affected differently by the serious and humorous messages.
Afterexposure,measurements were takenon cognitive responses,attitudes,and recall.
The final cognitive response category was the irrelevantcategory, which in3The cognitive response instructionsused in this study requested the subjects to list the thoughtsthat occurredto them while viewing the commercial about the product and their reactions during the commercial to what was said about the productby the advertiser.
Each variableis numberedto facilitate of interpretation Table 3, which shows the actual and expected correlations among nonadjacentpairs of variables for the two competing causal flows previously described. The second stage of two-factortheory and the two-stage attitudemodificationprocess, which predicts a decrease in affect and an increase in negative thoughts due to tedium and reactance, was partially supported.
The secondgeneralobjectiveof ourresearchinvolved examiningthe hypothesizedrole of elaborationopporof tunity. Based on the same argument, it has been suggested that attitude as a measure of persuasion be included in experiments studying humor effects Sternthal and Craig Of interest here are the ratings for the humorous and serious messages in the five-exposure varied and nonvaried conditions.
Viewers across all conditions expressed a generally favorable evaluation of the new product and indicated a low probability of buying the product within the next 12 months.Belch, George E.
and M. A. Belch (), "An Investigation of the Effects of Repetition on Cognitive and Affective Reactions to Humorous and Serious TV Commercials,". television commercial repetition nor its effect on re-sponses to the commercial.
In their discussion of tedium, researchers seem to have conceptualized this factor as an increasingly negative feeling and reaction toward experiencing the stimulus again. This conceptualization is the basis for the mea.
etition and attitude toward a novel commercial and product. However, the under- Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A Test of the Two-Factor Model The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long heen of considerable basic and prag-matic interest to marketers.
Early. knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes. Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A Test of the Two-Factor Model The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long been of considerable basic and prag- matic interest to marketers.
Many advertisers have argued that second television commercials should be used only to reinforce effects created by longer commercials. However, this recommendation is based on studies that have several weaknesses, including use of single exposure levels, established commercials, and learning as the primary dependent variable.
The majority of studies dealing with advertising repetition effects have analyzed these variables (Kirmani Kirmani, Amna (), “Advertising Repetition as a Signal of Quality: If It's Advertised So Much, Something Must Be Wrong,” Journal of Advertising, 26 (3), 77 –Download